Anovulation and PCOS

Anovulation and PCOS


Dr. Mary Sawdon is a fertility-focused Naturopathic Doctor practicing at Conceive Health at Lakeridge Fertility in Whitby, Ontario. She works in a cooperative model with the top fertility clinics to provide preconception healthcare for better IVF/IUI treatment outcomes, reduced complications, and healthier pregnancies. She carried two children to term with the assistance of IVF and preconception healthcare. 


Anovulation, a condition characterized by the absence of ovulation, can significantly impact a persons fertility journey. In this blog post, we will delve into the concept of anovulation, explore the common causes behind irregular ovulation, and shed light on why anovulation is particularly prevalent in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS).

What is Anovulation? 

Anovulation refers to the absence of ovulation, the process where a mature egg is released from the ovary. Instead of releasing an egg during the menstrual cycle, people with anovulation experience a disruption in this crucial reproductive process. Without an egg to fertilize, conception becomes challenging, and irregular or absent menstrual cycles are commonly observed.


What are the Common Causes of Anovulation: 

Most of us will experience some natural anovulatory cycles (menstrual cycles where ovulation does not occur) throughout our lifetime. For example, while breastfeeding our bodies release a hormone that reduces some of the hormones needed to trigger ovulation, therefore inhibiting ovulation.  However, there are many other causes of anovulation that can impact a person’s fertility, some of which include:

  1. Hormonal Imbalances: Hormonal imbalances, particularly involving the hormones responsible for regulating the menstrual cycle, can lead to anovulation. Fluctuations or deficiencies in estrogen, progesterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and thyroid hormones can disrupt the delicate hormonal interplay required for ovulation.

  2. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): PCOS is a common endocrine disorder affecting those with eggs of reproductive age. It is characterized by hormonal imbalances, multiple small cysts on the ovaries, and insulin resistance. In PCOS, anovulation is a hallmark feature, contributing to irregular menstrual cycles and difficulties conceiving. The exact mechanisms behind anovulation in PCOS are complex and involve hyperandrogenism (elevated androgen levels), insulin resistance, and altered follicle development.
  1. Stress and Lifestyle Factors: Chronic stress, excessive exercise, significant weight loss or gain, and poor nutrition can disrupt the delicate hormonal balance necessary for ovulation. Stress hormones, such as cortisol, can interfere with the production and release of reproductive hormones, leading to anovulation.
  1. Thyroid Disorders: Imbalances in thyroid hormone levels, such as hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism, can impact ovulation. Thyroid hormones play a crucial role in regulating the menstrual cycle, and any disruptions can result in anovulation.

Why is there Anovulation in PCOS?

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common causes of anovulation. In PCOS, hormonal imbalances, specifically elevated levels of androgens (male hormones) and insulin resistance, disrupt the normal ovulation process. These hormonal disturbances prevent the maturation of follicles, which leads to the formation of small cysts on the ovaries. The lack of a dominant follicle and subsequent failure to release an egg result in anovulation.

Additionally, the elevated androgens in PCOS can interfere with the production and signalling of LH and FSH, hormones essential for the development and release of eggs. The disrupted hormonal feedback loop further contributes to anovulation.

Furthermore, insulin resistance commonly seen in PCOS can lead to elevated insulin levels. High insulin levels stimulate the ovaries to produce excess androgens, exacerbating hormonal imbalances and anovulation.

In conclusion, anovulation is a condition that can significantly impact someone’s fertility journey. Hormonal imbalances, stress, lifestyle factors, and thyroid disorders are some common causes of anovulation. In particular, PCOS stands out as a leading cause, with its intricate hormonal imbalances and disrupted follicle development. Understanding the causes and implications of anovulation empowers those experiencing it to seek appropriate medical guidance and explore holistic approaches to restore hormonal balance, support ovulation, and enhance their chances of conception. With proper diagnosis, personalized treatment plans, and a comprehensive approach, those experiencing anovulation can navigate the challenges and embark on a hopeful path towards achieving their dreams of parenthood.

Note: This blog post provides general information and should not be considered medical advice. Consult a healthcare professional for a proper diagnosis and personalized guidance.

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